The fate of Landfills in the context of saving our environment

1 Introduction:
Municipal Landfills are the final resting and hiding place for all of our garbage. Landfills cost millions of euros to build and tens of euros to maintain. They often leak, spilling toxic fluids that contaminate groundwater. Paper can take well over 160 times longer to decompose in a landfill. They fill up after only about 7 years, but must be maintained for 30 years. They are a massive polluter to groundwater and are a leading contributor to global warming. But still we are maintaining them. Where else can we put all those wastages?
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Design of Substructure Bridge with Different Codes and Analysis the Data for Settlement and Bearing Capacity Manually and by Using Plaxiz 3D Program of Finite Elements

This paper discussed the design of substructure of bridge subjected to load of train with using two codes, the first code is AASHTO code and the second is the Chinese Code. This study focuses on the substructure of the bridge design and the design manually with the two codes.

By the design of the Bridge using the codes above, we found that Chinese Code is more safely that the number of reinforcement bars more in the pile cap and pile.

Settlement of the bridge also is calculated by using the data collected from the project site, the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of pile group and the dynamic action of the train loads, by this study it can be concluded all the above are safe values.

Another analysis by using the three-dimensional Plaxis program of finite elements and many parameters calculated, the value of the maximum vertical displacement was near from the calculated value which gives another checking for the design and maintain the safe conditions for the Bridge.

1. Introduction
Many of codes used in the world for design the bridges and many of countries have special codes for design depending on the specialty of that country and the nature, environmental conditions, effect of earth quakes etc. In the United States Bridge Engineers use AASHTO’s standard Specification for Highway Bridges and, in similar fashion or trends, German bridge engineer utilize the DIN standard and British use the BS 5400 code. In general, countries like German and United Kingdom which have developed and maintained major highway systems for a great many years possess their own national bridge standards. The AASHTO Standard Specification, however, have been accepted by many countries as the general code by which bridges should be designed.

In this paper, the design of a bridge by using two codes the AASHTO and Chinese codes. The AASHTO Code for design bridges named “American Association of State Highway and Transportation

In China there are many codes for design about 81 codes for design for all the majors in the civil engineering with serial numbers of standard, the code used for this study is (The Chinese National Standard (CNS, 2002)) [4], Building Foundation Design Code (GB50007-2002). The Chinese Codes for design bridges focusing on the rail-way design like:

– Fundamental Code for Design on Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.1-2005).
– Code for Design of Steel Structure of Railway Bridge (TB10002.2-2005).
– Code for Design on Reinforced and Pre-stressed Concrete Structure of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.3-2005).
– Code for Design on Concrete and Block Masonry Structure of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.4-2005).
– Code for Design on Subsoil and Foundation of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.5-2005).
– Standard for Constructional Quality Acceptance of Railway Bridge and Culvert Engineering

2. Research Significance
This paper is to make a comparison between two or more codes in different countries to show the differences and similarities and advantages and disadvantages also for checking the design by the analysis and find the suitability of using the structure according to the design.
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Economic Evaluation of Godhra M.P. Border Project


Road Traffic has been growing with very rapid rate i.e. 8 % per annum, hence the traffic intensity and volume on the road is high. The present road network is necessary to improve to accommodate the future traffic and to provide the good riding quality. The development of Infrastructure has been done by the public sector through the fund collected from taxes, but huge fund are required for modernization of road network.

Due to decreasing financial resources, government is not in position to invest the funds in those developments. This has brought to focus the need of attracting private investment in road in India. The funds provided by private sector for improvement of road condition are recovered from road user by toll tax. After recovery period that particular road section is transferred to government. This new Idea is called as BOT system.

B.O.T. (Build/Own/Transfer) projects are public infrastructure projects, which employ a particular form of structured financing. The involvement of the private sector in the development of infrastructure by way of BOT projects, alternatively called B.O.T. (Build- operate-transfer) is proving to be a challenging exercise.

BOT projects have several advantages such as-

1. The government gets the benefit of the private sector to mobilize finances and to use the best management skills in the construction, operation and maintenance of the project.

2. The private participation also ensures efficiency and quality by using the best equipment.

3. The projects are conducted in a fully competitive bidding situation and are thus completed at the lowest possible cost.

In a B.O.T. arrangement, the private sector designs and builds the infrastructure, finances its construction and owns, operates and maintains it over a period, often as long as 20 or 30 years. This period is sometimes referred to as the “concession” period. Traditionally, such projects provide for the infrastructure to be transferred to the government at the end of the concession period.
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Eco Friendly And Sustainable Transportation

In this paper two aspects of eco-friendly transportation has been discussed. Transportation is a huge consumer of energy and resources and also a major source of environment pollution (basically air pollution). People tend to use motorized vehicle even for the short distances because of inconvenience and unsafe conditions for bicycling. This leads excessive use of fuel. Limiting the motorized transportation to a defined boundary is required to control the fuel usage and also to reduce site air and noise pollution. Green vehicles are very much energy efficient, pollution free and convenient mode for short distance travelling. But because of lack of facilities their use is not preferred. Eco-friendly transportation promotes use of such efficient vehicles by adequate provisions. Eco-friendly transportation is beneficial for the users as it keeps environment free of pollution and posses healthy living conditions. The use of green vehicle is one part of eco-friendly transportation, the other and most important aspect of sustainable transportation is the use of the waste materials such as fly ash, steel industry slag, paper industry waste in the construction of pavements, embankments of roads and rails etc. which are dangerous as far as the environmental pollution is concerned.

Key words:– Green vehicle, Eco-friendly or sustainable transportation, fly ash, Construction of pavements.
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Effect Of Eccentricity On Analysis and Design Of Isolated Footings

(A CASE STUDY OF Jammu and Kashmir)

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Footings are often subjected to moments from columns in addition to the axial loads. The presence of certain amount of eccentricity of loading in the footing induces moment on footing. A careful consideration has to be given to the presence of eccentricity, while performing the analysis and design of such footings, as an increase in eccentricity beyond certain limit renders a considerable area of footing ineffective to resist the stresses due to development of tension. Under these circumstances, the conventional flexural equation becomes inapplicable, thereby imparting more complexity in the analysis.

In this Thesis an attempt has been made to understand the behaviour of footings subjected to Uniaxial and biaxial eccentricity.

Two cases of uniaxial eccentricity are considered, Case I with column placed away from centre of footing, load being concentric with the column and Case II with column at centre of footing and load placed at certain eccentricity. For each case three conditions of eccentricity are considered ie e=0, eL/6. Complete analysis has been performed using Limit State Method for SBC = 40, 50, 65 and 100 KN/Sq m which are prevalent in the region under consideration. For biaxial cases two eccentricity conditions with eL/6 and SBC = 100 KN/Sq m have been analyzed. The analysis of footing subjected to biaxial eccentricity was carried out manually and as per charts and tables prevalent in literature.

A comparative study was conducted for both cases with reference to the design parameters and permissible values. The effect of eccentricity on quantity, cost and various other parameters were studied. The analysis was also carried out using SAP – 2000 Software for both Uniaxial and Biaxial Cases. The results obtained manually and by the use of software have been compared and difference analyzed. A computer program was developed for Analysis and Design of footing for Uniaxial and Biaxial cases in M.S. Excel to reduce the iterative work and to save time.

It was observed that there is a remarkable increase in quantity of concrete and steel when the loads are eccentric, the increasing factor being more in case of column placed away from the centre of footing as compared to the column placed at centre of footing. The results also highlight that the foundations become highly uneconomical if the geotechnical investigation reveals incorrect values of safe bearing capacities.
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