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What is LiDAR and Discuss it’s Importance and Possibilities

By
Rahul
Department Of Civil Engineering, AWH Engineering College, Calicut-8,Kerala

ABSTRACT
This seminar paper on LiDAR mapping provides an introduction to a maturing technology used to acquire land based Digital elevation Models (DEM), and an existing mature technology used to acquire marine (undersea) DEMs. This seminar also goes through the use of LIDAR in space programs. Common to both the land-based and marine based systems by the use of lasers, integrated into what are known as Light Detection And Ranging systems, or LiDAR. The seminar begins with an introduction to LiDAR, and follows-through with how the systems are used, a description of land and marine variants, and statements as to what accuracy is attainable. Data products driven by applications are outlined, and the ability of these products to be integrated into a GIS is addressed. In turn and integral to the theme of the paper, evidence is presented to support applications developments that will ultimately benefit the public at large. Where valid, comparisons of LiDAR to other mapping technologies are presented to give the reader an understanding of current traditional practices. In many cases the combination of Li-DAR with other technology creates a result that is unachievable with a single methodology. Finally, conclusions are presented for discussion purposes that draw on the experiences of LiDAR.

INTRODUCTION
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Production And Classification Of Locust Bean Pod Ash (LBPA) As A Pozzolan

by
Adama Andrew Yisa (Ministry of Works and Infrastructural Development, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.)
and
Dr. Y.A. Jimoh (Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.)

ABSTRACT
Locust Bean Pod Ash (LBPA) was produced by burning Locust Bean Pods in an Incinerator under controlled temperature. The solid residue after the combustion process was sieved using a set IS standard sieves after which the sieved sample was analyzed chemically to determine its constituents. The results of particle size distribution and chemical analysis of Locust Bean Pod Ash revealed that the percentage mass retained on IS sieve 44 µm is 29.6 % while the sum total of the combination of the chemical compounds (Sio2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3) was 63.57%. These indicate that Locust Bean Pod Ash is pozzolanic in nature.

Keywords
Locust Bean Pod Ash (LBPA), Pozzolan, Chemical analysis, Particle size
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Indoor Environment Quality-Mold In Existing Buildings And During Construction

By
Navaid Ur Rehman,PMP,
M.Eng (Construction Management)
University of Alberta

ABSTRACT
This term paper is prepared as part of the graduate degree requirement. The report consists of two parts:
Part 1: Mold growth in existing buildings
Part 2: Mold during construction

In Part 1 four areas are discussed:
(1) What mold is, how and where it resides and the reason for mold growth (2) Mold health concerns (3) Investigation and evaluation of mold and (4) Mold control if it resides in indoor environments and what should the preventive measures be.

In Part 2 two main areas are discussed: (1) Mold free construction, preventing mold growth before construction and checks during and post construction (2) Toxic Mold Litigation and the number of mold claims have exploded in recent years in the US and Canada.

KEY WORDS
Mold, Health Concern, Risk Factor, Risk Control, Mold free Construction, Construction Claim, Moisture
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Effect of Static Loading on RC Beams with Large Openings and CFRP as Strengthening Tool

By
Preetpal Kaur Ragbir Singh, Assoc. Prof. Dr, Nasir Shafiq
University Technology Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar.31750,Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract
Design, construction and maintenance requirements of tall buildings and industrial complexes are very different from those applicable for normal building design and construction. For example, for conveying the services and other facilities such as water supply, electricity, air-conditioning and sewerage discharge; a complex network of system routing is provided, which usually align vertically and horizontally and spread throughout the floor area. This complex network is often obstructed by the structural components such as beams, columns and floors and requires to penetrate through such obstruction, which is called the structural penetrations. The size, location and configuration of structural penetration are derived from the type of services, magnitude and speed of facility to be provided. The most prevalent location, size and configuration of structural penetration are always an issue between structural engineers and service or facilities design engineers. This research focuses on the effects of static loading on reinforced concrete beams with openings. This research also studies the prospect of strengthening the beams by using external bonded CFRP in different combinations or arrangement to regain bending capacity that was lost due to the openings. The openings are circular, rectangular, square and elliptical shaped.

Keywords
CFRP Sheets, Large Opening, Static, RC Beam.
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A Comparative Study of Retrofitting Of R.C. Building Using Steel Bracing And Infill Walls

By
Prof. Pravin B. Waghmare
Acharya Shrimannarayan Polytechnic Pipri (M)- Wardha-Maharashtra

Abstract
The objective of this study is to identify an efficient retrofitting method for existing open ground story reinforced concrete frame buildings. Failure of several soft-stored buildings in the past earthquakes underscores the need to retrofit existing soft-story buildings. A common cause for the collapse of multi-storied buildings is the occurrence of soft story in the ground floor due to the presence of infill walls in the upper story. During the Bhuj (Gujarat) earthquake of 6thJanuary 2001 several soft storied building failed there by confirming the vulnerability of such buildings to earthquake loading. This underscores the need to retrofit existing soft story buildings to prevent their total collapse. The existing building structures, which were designed and constructed according to early codal provisions, do not satisfy requirements of current seismic code and design practices. A two dimensional R.C. frame designed with linear elastic dynamic analysis using response spectrum method. The computer software package STAAD Pro–2005 is used for dynamics analysis technique is used to assess the performance of a (G + 4) reinforced concrete buildings, of which the ground storey is a parking facility the ground storey is 3.5m high while the upper stories giving a total height of 15.5 m. the building is located in Seismic Zone IV.

The RC frame is retrofitted by three methods namely,
1) Brick masonry infill in the ground story.

2) Steel braces in the ground story.

3) R.C. Structural wall in the ground story.

The study concludes that the building designed as per provisions of IS: 456:2000 using limit state method of design, and analyzed as per existing seismic code IS: 1893-2000 of all these three methods studied the use of structural wall in the ground story panel gave the maximum strength and ductility.

Keywords: Open ground storey, brick infill, RC wall Infill and Steel Bracing.
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