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Project Skybus

By
Miss Pallavi Dhamak

INTRODUCTION
SkyBus is a greener way to travel. When delegates choose to travel on SkyBus between the Airport and the city they all leave a smaller carbon footprint. SkyBus supports Green fleet and plants over 7,000 trees each year to offset carbon emissions from its fleet’s fuel consumption. Sky Bus operates 24 hours/7 days a week- over 250 trips a day moving in excess of two million passengers.

• Water management system/water plan
• Water tank/rainwater tanks
• Water saving shower heads
• Dual-flush toilets.

Waste Management
• Encourage a reduction in paper usage by communicating electronically
• Recycle paper, rubbish, print cartridges, aluminium, metal etc.
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Different types of Parking Spaces and Multiple Level Car Parking

By
Prof. Madhuri K. Rathi, Mr.Darshan V Patel
Department of Civil Engineering, Pune University, India

Abstract
The growing population of India has created many problems one of the challenging ones being car parking which we confront almost every day. Besides the problem of space for cars moving on the road, greater is the problem of space for a parked vehicle considering that private vehicles remain parked for most of their time. While residential projects still escape with designated parking, the real problem lie with commercial spaces many a time which is overcome by taking extra open spaces to park.

Multi-level Parking systems for sometime have provided relief since they come with a number of advantages – optimal utilisation of space, lower maintenance and operational cost, lower construction cost, secure and environment-friendly nature, comfortable for the drivers, cost saving for builders by saving height or depth. Multiple Level Car Parking Systems are much in vogue a method of automatically parking and retrieving cars that typically use a system of pallets and lifts and signalling devices for retrieval. They serve advantages like safety, saving of space, time and fuel space but also need to have an extra and a very detailed assessment of the parking required, space availability and traffic flow.
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Bitumen Modified With Styrene Butadiene Styrene thermoplastic For Roofing Application

By
Ms. Chinkal Patel – M.E. Chemical, GCPC , Gandhinagar
Prof. Rupande Desai – Asst. Professor of Rubber Technology, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad
Dr. P. J. Gundaliya – Asst. Professor of Civil Engineering, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad

ABSTRCT
In the Past, bitumen was used to waterproof roofs. The roof crack reflected through to the surface of each successive bitumen patch. The cracking problem solve if incorporated rubber in next round of patching. Roofing is a past or we also say that present waterproof barrier of environment & Human Effectiveness.

The primary reason for using bituminous rubber is that it provides significantly improved engineering properties over conventional grade bitumen.
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What are the Types of Modifier in Bitumen?

By Nurul Hidayah

INTRODUCTION
Bitumen is a black or dark brown non-crystalline solid or viscous material, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, having adhesive properties, derived from petroleum either by natural or refinery processes and substantially soluble in carbon disulphide. Refer to Ali Akhber Yousefi (2002), bitumen in pure form is not suitable for modern roads and present traffic, therefore forced engineers to modify bitumen to improve its performance during service life.

The modified binder are more stable under heavy loads, braking and accelerating forces and shows increased resistance to permanent deformation in hot weather. It resists fatigue loads and having better adhesion between aggregates and binders.

TYPE OF BITUMEN MODIFIER AND ADDITIVE

There are 3 type of bitumen modifier, namely :
(1) physical modification
(2) chemical modification
(3) other type modification

The table 1 below showed the type of modifier and example of additive that being used to modify the bitumen.
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A Study of Axle Overloadings On A Rural Road In Nigeria

By
S.S. KOLO, (Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria), Y.A.JIMOH (University of Ilorin, Nigeria) AND P. N.NDOKE(Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria)

Abstract
This paper presents the outcome of the axle load survey on a section of a rural trunk road in Nigeria in order to ascertain the contribution of overloaded goods vehicles to pavement failure. Seven day classified traffic and axle load survey was conducted for the determination of ADT, percentage heavy vehicle and the imposed axle load at respective axle position for the traversing vehicles on the Old Jos –Kaduna road, Kaduna state Nigeria. The proportion of the vehicle laden weight carried by each axle and the corresponding standard axle load (sal) was computed with the index model of power 4. The percentage and magnitude of overloaded axles were respectively determined as an indicative measure of the extent of structural damage to the pavement. The studied pavement was overstressed up to five times beyond the Nigeria standard axle load of 80kN, which was too high and hence constituting the hindsight to frequent structural damage to road pavements in Nigeria. It was recommended that the axle load control with weigh-in-motion weighing bridges to assure protection of the road from failure be instituted that will impact less disturbance to normal traffic flow on the arterial.

Keywords
Commercial Vehicle, Average Daily Traffic, Design life, Axle Load, Gross Weight and Gross Vehicle Weight
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