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The Use of Automation in Construction Industry

AKSHAY S. TEJANKAR
3rd Year, Civil Engineering Department
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur

Abstract: The construction industry’s contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) in the developing countries like that of in India is about 10%. Under the Make in India scheme, it is expected that $1000 Billion investments for infrastructure sector would be accomplished in the next few years. Today the construction industry is one of the most unpracticed fields in terms of automation. The importance of construction automation has grown rapidly in developed countries. In developing countries like India, the construction industries need automation technologies such as new machineries, electronic devices , the automation of road, tunnel, and bridge construction; earthwork, etc.

The construction industry being labor intensive requires more numbers of skilled labor, good quality of work, and increase in productivity etc. The problems associated with construction work such as decreasing quality of work, labor shortages, and safety of labor and working condition of projects can be overcome by new innovative technologies such as automation which has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and productivity of the construction industry.

Today, it is evident that the level of automation in construction is very low in comparison with current technological advances. That is why we must make new efforts to increase the automation level of this important sector.

Keywords: Automation, construction industry, Infrastructure projects

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Gypsum Application through Machine

The old method to apply Gypsum manually took hours of labor and also had poor durability due to manual errors. Now with automation in this field, application through machine is gaining wide spread popularity as its not only faster but also cheaper in long run as very less labor is required.

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More over the results are much more stronger and durable as compared to old methods. This is the machine which is used to apply Gypsum and we at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Mr. Chandrahas Amin for submitting this picture to us.

Gypsum application through Machine

Dump Truck – Construction Equipment

Dump trucks or production trucks are those that are used for transporting loose material such as sand, dirt, and gravel for construction. The typical dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open box bed hinged at the rear, with the front being able to be lifted up to allow the contents to fall out on the ground at the site of delivery.Dump trucks come in many different configurations with each one specified to accomplish a specific task in the construction chain.

dump_trucks_construction_engineering

Standard dump truck
The standard dump truck is a full truck chassis with the dump body mounted onto the frame. The dump body is raised by a hydraulic ram lift that is mounted forward of the front bulkhead, normally between the truck cab and the dump body. The standard dump truck also has one front axle, and one or more rear axles which normally has dual wheels on each side. The common configurations for standard dump trucks include the six wheeler and ten wheeler.

Transfer dump truck
For the amount of noise made when transferring, the transfer dump truck is easy to recognize. It’s a standard dump truck that pulls a separate trailer which can be loaded with sand, asphalt, gravel, dirt, etc. The B box or aggregate container on the trailer is
powered by an electric motor and rides on wheels and rolls off of the trailer and into the main dump box. The biggest advantage with this configuration is to maximize payload capacity without having to sacrifice the maneuverability of the short and nimble dump truck standards.

Semi trailer end dump truck
The semi end dump truck is a tractor trailer combination where the trailer itself contains the hydraulic hoist. The average semi end dump truck has a 3 axle tractor that pulls a 2 axle semi trailer. The advantage to having a semi end dump truck is rapid unloading.

Semi trailer bottom dump truck
A bottom dump truck is a 3 axle tractor that pulls a 2 axle trailer with a clam shell type dump gate in the belly of the trailer. The biggest advantage of a semi bottom dump truck is the ability to lay material in a wind row. This type of truck is also maneuverable in reverse as well, unlike the double and triple trailer configurations.

Double and triple trailer
The double and triple bottom dump trucks consist of a 2 axle tractor pulling a semi axle semi trailer and an additional trailer. These types of dump trucks allow the driver to lay material in wind rows without having to leave the cab or stop the truck. The biggest disadvantage is the difficulty in going in reverse.

Side dump trucks
Side dump trucks consist of a 3 axle trailer pulling a 2 axle semi trailer. It offers hydraulic rams that tilt the dump body onto the side, which spills the material to the left or right side of the trailer. The biggest advantages with these types of dump trucks are that they allow rapid unloading and carry more weight than other dump trucks.

In addition to this, side dump trucks are almost impossible to tip over while dumping, unlike the semi end dump trucks which are very prone to being upset or tipped over. The length of these trucks impede maneuverability and limit versatility.

Off road dump trucks
Off road trucks resemble heavy construction equipment more than they do highway dump trucks. They are used strictly for off road mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs, such as excavation work. They are very big in size, and perfect for those time when you need to dig out roads and need something to haul the massive amounts of dirt to another location.

This article was submitted by Er. Ankush

Front Loader – Construction Equipment

Also known as a front end loader, bucket loader, scoop loader, or shovel, the front loader is a type of tractor that is normally wheeled and uses a wide square tilting bucket on the end of movable arms to lift and move material around.The loader assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently mounted on the vehicle. Often times, the bucket can be replaced with other devices or tools, such as forks or a hydraulically operated bucket.

Larger style front loaders, such as the Caterpillar 950G or the Volvo L120E, normally have only a front bucket and are known as front loaders, where the small front loaders are often times equipped with a small backhoe as well and called backhoe loaders or loader backhoes.Loaders are primarily used for loading materials into trucks, laying pipe, clearing rubble, and also digging. Loaders aren’t the most efficient machines for digging, as they can’t dig very deep below the level of their wheels, like the backhoe can.

Front_loader_construction_equipment

The deep bucket on the front loader can normally store around 3 – 6 cubic meters of dirt, as the bucket capacity of the loader is much bigger than the bucket capacity of a backhoe loader. Loaders aren’t classified as excavating machinery, as their primary purpose is other than moving dirt.In construction areas, mainly when fixing roads in the middle of the city, front loaders are used to transport building materials such as pipe, bricks, metal bars, and digging tools. Front loaders are also very useful for snow removal as well, as you can use their bucket or as a snow plow. They can clear snow from the streets and highways, even parking lots.They will sometimes load the snow into dump trucks which will then haul it away.

Unlike the bulldozer, most loaders are wheeled and not tracked. The wheels will provide better mobility and speed and won’t damage paved roads near as much as tracks, although this will come at the cost of reduced traction. Unlike backhoes or tractors fitted with a steel bucket, large loaders don’t use automotive steering mechanisms, as they instead steer by a hydraulically actuated pivot point set exactly between the front and rear axles.This is known as articulated steering and will allow the front axle to be solid, therefore allowing it to carry a heavier weight.

Articulated steering will also give a reduced turn in radius for a given wheelbase. With the
front wheels and attachment rotating on the same axis, the operator is able to steer his load in an arc after positioning the machine, which can come in quite handy. The problem is that when the machine is twisted to one side and a heavy load is lifted high in the air, it has a bigger risk of turning over.

This article was submitted by Er. Ankush

Forklift

Sometimes called a forklift truck, the forklift is a powerful industrial truck that is used to lift and transport material by steel forks that are inserted under the load. Forklifts are commonly used to move loads and equipment that is stored on pallets. The forklift was developed in 1920, and has since become a valuable piece of equipment in many manufacturing and warehousing operations.

Types of Forklifts
The most common type of design with forklifts is the counter balance. Other types of designs include the reach truck and side loader, both of which are used in environments where the space is at a minimum.

Forklift_construction_equipment

Control and capability
Forklifts are available in many types and different load capacities. In the average warehouse setting,most forklifts have load capacities of around five tons. Along with the control to raise and lower the forks, you can also tilt the mast to compensate for the tendency of the load to angle the blades towards the ground and risk slipping it off the forks. The tilt will also provide a limited ability to operate on ground that isn’t level.There are some variations that allow you to move the forks and backrest laterally, which allows easier placement of a load. In addition to this, there are some machines that offer hydraulic control to move the forks together or further apart, which removes the need for you to get out of the cab to manually adjust for a different size load.
Another forklift variation that is sometimes used in manufacturing facilities, will utilize forklifts with a clamp attachment that you can open and close around a load, instead of having to use forks. Products such as boxes, cartons, etc., can be moved with the clamp attachment.

Safety
Forklifts are rated for loads at a specified maximum weight and a specified forward type center of gravity. All of this information is located on a nameplate that is provided by the manufacturer and the loads cannot exceed these specifications. One of the most important aspects of operating a forklift is the rear wheel steering. Even though this helps to increase maneuverability in tight cornering situations, it differs from the traditional experience of a driver with other wheeled vehicles as there is no caster action. Another critical aspect of the forklift is the instability. Both the forklift and the load must be considered a unit, with a varying center of gravity with every movement of the load.You must never negotiate a turn with a forklift at full speed with a raised load, as this can easily tip the forklift over.

This article was submitted by – Er.  Ankush

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