Mix Design For Concrete Roads As Per IRC-15-2002

By
Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Check out the Mix Design For Concrete Roads As Per IRC:15-2011

ABSTRACT:
The stresses induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural. Therefore flexural strength is more often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement construction. A simple method of concrete mix design based on flexural strength for normal weight concrete mixes is described in the paper.

INTRODUCTION:
Usual criterion for the strength of concrete in the building industry is the compressive strength, which is considered as a measure of quality concrete. however, in pavement constructions, such as highway and airport runway, the flexural strength of concrete is considered more important, as the stresses induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural. Therefore, flexural strength is more often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement construction. It is not perfectly reliable to predict flexural strength from compressive strength. Further, various codes of the world specified that the paving concrete mixes should preferably be designed in the laboratory and controlled in the field on the basis of its flexural strength. Therefore, there is a need to design concrete mixes based on flexural strength.

The type of aggregate can have a predominant effect, crushed rock aggregate resulting in concrete with higher flexural strength than uncrushed (gravel) aggregates for comparable mixes, assuming that sound materials are used. The strength of cement influences the compressive and flexural strength of concrete i.e. with the same water-cement ratio, higher strength cement will produce concrete of higher compressive and flexural strength.

MIX DESIGN DETAILS
IRC: 15-2002 specified that for concrete roads OPC should be used. This code also allowed PPC as per IS: 1489 may also be used. Accordingly OPC + fly ash may be used in concrete roads. However, IS: 456-2000 specified that fly ash conforming to grade-1 of IS-3812 may be used as part replacement of OPC provided uniform blended with cement is essential. The construction sites where batching plants are used this may be practicable. In ordinary sites where mixer or hand mixing are done uniform blending of fly ash with cement is not practicable. At such construction sites, PPC may be used.

1 Characteristic Flexural Strength at 28 days 4.5N/mm2
2 Cement Three mixes are to be designed
MIX-A
With PPC (Flyash based) conforming to IS:1489-part-I-1991. 7 days strength 37.5N/mm2. Specific Gravity: 3.00
MIX-B
With OPC-43- Grade conforming to IS: 8112-1989. 7 days strength 40.5N/mm2. Specific Gravity : 3.15
MIX-C
With OPC of Mix-B and Fly ash conforming to IS:3812 (Part-I)-2003 Specific Gravity : 2.20
Note Requirements of all the three mixes are the same. Fine Aggregate, Coarse Aggregate and Retarder Super plasticizer are the same for all the three mixes.
3 Fly ash replacement 25% Fly ash is required to be replaced with the total cementitious materials.
4 Maximum nominal size of aggregates 20 mm Crushed aggregate
5 Fine aggregate River sand of Zone-II as per IS:383-1970
6 Minimum cement content 350 kg/m3 including Fly ash
7 Maximum free W/C Ratio 0.50
8 Workability 30 mm slump at pour the concrete will be transported from central batching plant through transit mixer, at a distance of 20 Km during June, July months. The average temperature last year during these months was 400C.
9 Exposure condition Moderate
10 Method of placing Fully mechanized construction
11 Degree of supervision Good
12 Maximum of cement content (Fly ash not included) 425 kg/m3
13 Chemical admixture Retarder Super plasticizer conforming to IS:9103-1999. With the given requirements and materials, the manufacturer of Retarder Super plasticizer recommends dosages of 10 gm per kg of OPC, which will reduce 15% of water without loss of workability. For fly ash included cement dosages will be required to be adjusted by experience/ trials.
14 Values of Jaxo- 1.65 x 0.5 N/mm2

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How To Make Concrete At Site? M 25 Example

By
Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

PORTLAND CEMENT:
Joseph Aspdin, a mason at Leeds prepared a cement in 1824 by heating a mixture of finely-divided clay and hard limestone in a furnace until CO2 had been driven off; this temperature was much lower than that necessary for clinkering. The prototype of modern cement was made in 1845 by Isaac Johnson, who burnt a mixture of clay and chalk until clinkering, so that the reaction necessary for the formation of strongly cementitious compound took place. The name ‘Portland Cement’ was given due to the resemblance of the colour and quality of the hardened cement to Portland stone- a limestone quarried in Doset.

The process of manufacturing of cement consists essentially of grinding the raw materials ( calcareous materials such as limestone or chalk and argillaceous materials such as shale or clay), mixing them intimately in certain proportion and burning in a large rotary kiln at a temperature of upto about 14500C when the material sinters and partially fuses into balls known as clinker. The clinker is cooled and ground to a fine powder, with some gypsum added, and the resulting product is the commercial Portland Cement so widely used throughout the world.

MAKING CONCRETE:
Just mix cement, aggregates and water, cast this mix in a mould, open the mould next day. A uniform hard mass will be found, which is known as concrete, any body can make it. The simplecity in making concrete make this material to be look like very simple in its production, yet it as not so simple. Due to ignorance about concrete no other building materials ever mis-used as concrete in the construction. In India concrete is being used in the construction since the last 70 years. Yet 80% of the builders have no proper understanding of this materials. Go to any construction site (except big construction sites) you will find that sand and aggregates are being taken in iron tasla or cane baskets to charge the mixer without the consideration of site aggregates actual grindings, moisture content and bulking of sand. The water is poured in the mixer without any measured quantity. It could be well imagine what sort of concrete structure will be made with the concrete being produced in this crude method.

Most of the contractors, builders, masons etc. still follow 1:2:4 or 1:1.5:3 mixes they are not aware of Design Mixes and Concrete Admixtures. This paper described how Design Mixes can be converted into volume with 1 Bag Cement, 2 Boxes of sand and 4 Boxes of Aggregate. The site practical problem is the dispersion of water and liquid admixtures into the mixer. For this the site should fabricate a plastic circular graduated measuring container of 30 lit capacity with a tap fitted at its bottom. This container is to be fitted on top of the mixer. From this container water and liquid admixtures can conveniently poured direct into the mixer in a measured quantity.
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M-35 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009

Dear All

Again I am back with M-35 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009
Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1

Stipulations for Proportioning

1

Grade Designation M35

2

Type of Cement OPC 53 grade confirming to IS-12269-1987

3

Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4

Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 310 kg/m3

5

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

6

Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 50-75 mm (Slump)

7

Exposure Condition Normal

8

Degree of Supervision Good

9

Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10

Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11

Chemical Admixture Type Superplasticiser Confirming to IS-9103

A-2

Test Data for Materials

1

Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

2

Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3

Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4

Chemical Admixture BASF Chemicals Company

5

Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6

Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7

Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8

Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%

9

Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10

Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11

Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil

12

Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil

13

Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil

14

Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15

Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15

Sp.Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882

16

Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3

Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

1

Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 47N/mm2

2

Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 35N/mm2

A-4

Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

2

Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.4

A-5

Selection of Water Content

1

Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2

Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm Slump 160 Lit.

3

Superplasticiser used 0.5 % by wt. of cement

A-6

Calculation of Cement Content

1

Water Cement Ratio 0.4

2

Cement Content (160/0.42) 400 kg/m3

Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7

Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1

Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2

Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00%

Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00%

A-8

Mix Calculations

1

Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00

2

Volume of Cement in m3 0.13

(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000

3

Volume of Water in m3 0.160

(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000

4

Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 0.00168

(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000

5

Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.711

Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6

Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.441

Sr. no. 5 x 0.62

7

Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.270

Sr. no. 5 x 0.38

A-9

Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

1

Mass of Cement in kg/m3 400

2

Mass of Water in kg/m3 160

3

Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 704

4

Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1271

Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 915

Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 356

5

Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 2.00

6

Water Cement Ratio 0.40

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 38 Comments

M-30 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009

Dear All

Again I am back with M-30 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009
Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan

M-30 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1

Stipulations for Proportioning

1

Grade Designation M30

2

Type of Cement OPC 53 grade confirming to IS-12269-1987

3

Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4

Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 310 kg/m3

5

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

6

Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 50-75 mm (Slump)

7

Exposure Condition Normal

8

Degree of Supervision Good

9

Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10

Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11

Chemical Admixture Type Superplasticiser Confirming to IS-9103

A-2

Test Data for Materials

1

Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

2

Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3

Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4

Chemical Admixture BASF Chemicals Company

5

Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6

Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7

Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8

Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%

9

Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10

Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11

Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil

12

Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil

13

Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil

14

Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15

Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15

Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882

16

Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3

Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

1

Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 42N/mm2

2

Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 30N/mm2

A-4

Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

2

Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.42

A-5

Selection of Water Content

1

Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2

Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm Slump 160 Lit.

3

Superplasticiser used 0.5 % by wt. of cement

A-6

Calculation of Cement Content

1

Water Cement Ratio 0.42

2

Cement Content (160/0.42) 380 kg/m3

Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7

Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1

Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2

Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00%

Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00%

A-8

Mix Calculations

1

Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00

2

Volume of Cement in m3 0.12

(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000

3

Volume of Water in m3 0.160

(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000

4

Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 0.00160

(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000

5

Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.718

Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6

Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.445

Sr. no. 5 x 0.62

7

Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.273

Sr. no. 5 x 0.38

A-9

Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

1

Mass of Cement in kg/m3 380

2

Mass of Water in kg/m3 160

3

Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 711

4

Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1283

Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 924

Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 359

5

Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 1.90

6

Water Cement Ratio 0.42

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 65 Comments

M-25 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009

Dear All

Again I am back with M-25 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009.

Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan

M-25 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1

Stipulations for Proportioning

1

Grade Designation M25

2

Type of Cement OPC 53 grade confirming to IS-12269-1987

3

Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4

Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 310 kg/m3

5

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

6

Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 50-75 mm (Slump)

7

Exposure Condition Normal

8

Degree of Supervision Good

9

Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10

Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11

Chemical Admixture Type Superplasticiser Confirming to IS-9103

A-2

Test Data for Materials

1

Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

2

Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3

Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4

Chemical Admixture BASF Chemicals Company

5

Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6

Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7

Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8

Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%

9

Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10

Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11

Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil

12

Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil

13

Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil

14

Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15

Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15

Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882

16

Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3

Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

1

Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 36N/mm2

2

Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 25N/mm2

A-4

Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

2

Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.43

A-5

Selection of Water Content

1

Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2

Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm Slump 138 Lit.

3

Superplasticiser used 0.5 % by wt. of cement

A-6

Calculation of Cement Content

1

Water Cement Ratio 0.43

2

Cement Content (138/0.43) 320 kg/m3

Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7

Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1

Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2

Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00%

Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00%

A-8

Mix Calculations

1

Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00

2

Volume of Cement in m3 0.10

(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000

3

Volume of Water in m3 0.138

(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000

4

Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 0.00134

(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000

5

Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.759

Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6

Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.471

Sr. no. 5 x 0.62

7

Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.288

Sr. no. 5 x 0.38

A-9

Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

1

Mass of Cement in kg/m3 320

2

Mass of Water in kg/m3 138

3

Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 751

4

Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1356

Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 977

Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 380

5

Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 1.60

6

Water Cement Ratio 0.43

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 84 Comments
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