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What is the difference between gravity anchorage and tunnel anchorages in suspension bridges?

Gravity anchorages consist of three main parts, namely the base block, anchorage block and weight block. The weight block sits on top of anchor block and its weight is not used for resisting the pull of cables. Instead, its vertical action presses the cables vertically downward so as to turn the pull of cables against the foundation.
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When is single plane or multiple plane used in cable-stayed bridges?

For one cable plane to be adopted, the requirement of high torsional stiffness of bridge deck is necessary to enhance proper transverse load distribution. Moreover, owing to the higher stiffness of bridge deck to cater for torsional moment, it possesses higher capacity for load spreading. As a result, this avoids significant stress variations in the stay and contributes to low fatigue loading of cables. On the other hand, the use of one cable plane enhances no obstruction of view from either sides of the bridges.

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What are the advantages of cable-stayed bridges over suspension bridges for span less than 1,000m?

The advantage of cable-stayed bridges lies in the fact that it can be built with any number of towers but for suspension bridges it is normally limited to two towers.

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What are the functions of sleepers in railway?

The functions of sleepers in railway works are as follows:

(i) The primary function of a sleeper is to grip the rail to gauge and to distribute the rail loads to ballast with acceptable induced pressure.

(ii) The side functions of a sleeper include the avoidance of both longitudinal and lateral track movement.

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Are there any problems associated with Integral Abutment Bridge?

Integral Abutment Bridges are bridges without expansion joints in bridge deck. The superstructure is cast integrally with their superstructure. The flexibility and stiffness of supports are designed to take up thermal and braking loads.
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