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Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash and Superplasticizer

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Fly ash or pulverished fuel ash (pfa) is a finely divided powder thrown out as a waste material at the thermal power plants using pulverized coal for raising steam in the boilers. In the building industry, the use of fly ash a part replacement of cement in mortar and concrete at the construction site has been made all over the world including India and is well known. The important building materials which can be produced from fly ash are:

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Alkali-Silica Reaction In Concrete

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

The problem of Alkali-silica reaction was believed to be non-existent in India till 1983, when its occurrence was diagnosed in two concrete dams. This paper describes this problem with respect to Indian aggregates and cement. A rapid method of test for alkali-aggregate reaction is investigated and described in the paper.

INTRODUCTION
The most common causes of deterioration in structural concrete with steel reinforcement in it are

  • carbonation and chloride penetration leading to corrosion of steel resulting cracking and spelling of the concrete cover.
  • inadequate cover to reinforcing steel Less common causes of deterioration in clude,
  • freezing and thawing
  • sulphate attack
  • alkali-aggregate reaction.

There are three types of alkali-aggregate reactions, namely the alkali-silica, alkali-silicate and akali-carbonate reactions. Deterioration due to the alkali-silica reaction is more common and this paper refers to this aspect.
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Concrete Curing Compound

By
Er. KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

NEED FOR CURING

The necessity for curing arises from the fact that hydration of cement can take place only in water-filled capillaries. That is why a loss of water by evaporation from the capillaries must be prevented. Evaporation of water from concrete, soon after placing depends on the temperature and relatively humidity of the surrounding air and on the velocity of wind over the surface of the concrete. Curing is essential in the production of concrete to have the desired properties. The strength and durability of concrete will be fully developed only if it is properly cured. The amount of mixing water in the concrete at the time of placement is normally more than required for hydration & that must be retained for curing. However, excessive loss of water by evaporation may reduce the amount of retained water below what necessary for development of desired properties. The potentially harmful effects of evaporation shall be prevented either by applying water or preventing excessive evaporation.
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M-80 Grade Pumpable Concrete

By
Kaushal Kishore
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

A mix of M-80 Grade suitable for pumped concrete is to be designed with the following materials and detail.

1. OPC 53 Grade, 7-day strength 52.5 N/mm2, Spgr 3.15

2. Silica Fume Specific Gravity 2.20

3. Standard deviation for the mix 5.0 N/mm2

4. Grading and properties of river sand and 12.5 mm crushed aggregate are given in Table-1

5. Superplasticizer based on modified Polycarboxylate, specific gravity 1.06, liquid pH 6.0. With the given set of materials, it was found that at a dosages of 2.5 % bwc it gives a reduction of 30% of water for the required slump of 100 mm after one hour at the average day site temperature of 37 degree C.
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Sand For Concrete From Steel Mills Induction Furnace Waste Slag

By
Kaushal Kishore
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

INTRODUCTION:
For the last 20 years, the use of by products of various origins in the production of concrete has become an increasingly widespread practice in the world. The main advantages are all the elimination of scraps and a reduction in the over exploitation of quarries.

Blast furnace slag is used in blended cement. Although many studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the electric arc furnace slag to be use in concrete as aggregates replacing natural aggregates, no studies have been performed regarding the use of induction furnace slag in concrete as aggregates replacing natural aggregates.

In making mild steel ingot scrap to sponge iron is fed into the induction furnace which produces large quantity of slag. For example Kotdwar a small town of Uttarakhand Steel Mills induction furnances alone generates 15,000 tonnes of slag per year and about 1,50,000 tonnes of slag is lying as dump around this city posing an environmental problem. If about 20 steel factories of Kotdwar generate such quantity of slag it can be calculated how much slag is being generated by about 600 induction furnace units of India.
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